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They are doing that purposely. Government is not allowing Salsa to develop or Hip-Hop to control the media and the money just on certain people as we not all pay the taxes and perhaps based on what I discovered the poor pay the most.

on May 10, 2013




Estrellita De Jesus 13 2013



My departure point is from the North America Dance, which basically is the Indian American Dance as they are the native people.   Pilgrims and immigrants came to this country with their own traditions, as mentioned by Alan Lomax. (1991-8) *  The Pow-Wow Hip-Hop-Style is known to many, but has never being popularized as other dances that had gone through the two types of appropriation. I discovered that both natural and profitable appropriation is essential and one cannot be without the other. As the masses like the “new genre,” they enjoy and popularize the “new trend.” This attracts the attention of many who seek out innovative ideas and claim them as their own to get profit out of it.  The negative or positive impacts are not going to be discussed in this paper, but it should be pointed out that they create jobs and this helps to change the status quo of the best performers – the ones persevering and engaging dancers, who enjoy what they are doing and teach it to others.  This is what gives the “new trend” the value; the appreciation of many that get it to the top of the line, which catches the attention of corporations and entrepreneurs. Through the natural appropriation of Mambo/Salsa, as has happens to many others genres, this paper will highlight how with the migration of millions of people to the United States, the traditional dance movements that originated as demonstrated by Alan Lomax jukebox historically* are is no longer happening, at least not in North America.  A possible reason for this is that people were impacted by the political and economic changes brought on by Industrial Revolution that occurred for many years and they started interacting, observing and appropriating one and not always one another traditions.  Certainly without the economic support of big bucks supporters it is hard to kick high.  Nevertheless the reason for not having a real ‘ague’ and a real “new genre” is because to call something what isn’t accepted, just calls for failure or for temporary booms and does not leave a mark in the heart and the memories of millions.

John Fiske (1990: 54) asserts: “. . . [the] right to enjoy popular pleasure may not in itself change the system that subjugates. . . But it does preserve areas of life and meaning of experience that are opposed to normal disciplines existence.  [. . .] They are resistant (Centro Journal, 2004, Renta P 144) because Fiske’s last statement of resistance does not make sense as the essay of Renta points out.  She “seeks to articulate how salsa dance in New York represents a transcultural negotiation between resistance and acceptance/compliance in relation to Latino/a cultural politics.” (Centro Journal 2004 – Renta, p. 142).  

The “new genre or the common identity of joy and pleasure,” takes place in the heart and in the memories of a large number of people that helps the “new genre” to pass the test of time as has happened to many others genres like rock and roll, tango, mambo, salsa. . . or ballet.  Through the Internet, many traditions have been brought back to the attention of many including corporations, entrepreneurs who are searching for new ideas and with it in America the Pow Wow Hip-Hop.      The “new genre,” since the late 1960s has defined the identity of this generation, which is trying to make a statement as many other had done in the past.  This new generation is facing the profitable appropriation in a radical way that does not let it develop nor does it let these people gain development.  They had been struggling and instead of finding the support of good mentors, they have been finding many others like Saint Denis who just went out and took from this world as she pleased.   (Free Dance 1).  Our younger generation from all over the world are enjoying the “natural appropriation” and innovating to be the best including their own movements as they are identifying with new dance generation.  (See Hip-Hop competition).   They are appropriating-innovating again and again with their own movements and traditions, not for monetary profit as done by some corporations and entrepreneurs, but for the pleasure, the enjoyment of the international language of art in this case through dance and music. The search for new ideas, the rebellious statements of younger generations; the pride or the nostalgia if they are far away is what enables some genres to stand. 

Let me define the Hip-Hop genre and discuss, in brief, how it is being appropriated for profit as written through the definition of the term in The Oxford Dictionary of Dance.  (Craine, Debra, and Judith Mackrell, 2000)          
“Hip-Hop: Hip-Hop dance originated in New York among young Hispanic and African-American men during the late 1960s as part of the hip-hop culture of rap, scratch music, and graffiti art. The dance is always changing but essentially embraces the two styles of break dance and body popping. The former is an athletic solo form in which the performer enters the dance arena in a sideways motion then dives or breaks to the floor, spins around on his head, shoulders, or buttocks and ends with a freeze position Body popping involves a series of fasts, sharp actions that travel through the body in a robotic-looking alternation of move and freeze. The dance and its music became internationally current from the late 1970s and are often incorporated into theatre dance.  By Doug * Elkins, among others.”

The Pow Wow Hip-Hop style in America is going through appropriation as many other genres have being going through and this author will try to demonstrate this through Mambo/Salsa.  In fact, one of the articles uses to illustrate the point is (2004): 108-38. Mambo On 2: The Birth of a New Form of Dance in New York City.  (Centro Journal, Sidney Hutchinson, 2004).  Let me introduce the term ‘Salsa’

Basically, many of them are variation of Mambo or Salsa or Mambo On 2, now known as Mambo-Salsa or “street” or “ballroom”. As Hutchinson wrote, “… is a contentious endeavor in the salsa/mambo world,” which anyone can say spread and is popular throughout the world.  We found out that Salsa dance or Mambo dance or music . . . cannot become popular unless the creative mind is wishing to share and others acknowledge the acceptance, the enjoyment through their participation and “appropriation” is what made it popular.  The higher number of people participating and accepting that pop culture closed the gap between the classes because through it a market and profit is created. A clear example was the globalization of Tango that was thought as low end in the high class society of Argentina in its initiation and as Tango, Beethoven, Mambo, Salsa . . . the dance developed as the majority of the population, the lower class, practice the introduce genre, and appropriate the movements to be part of the new trend, but again as the genre get so popular, it reached the highest classes and mainly the people who were willing to invest to gain a profit.  Money moves this world and has connections and with a nice make up and costumes. The high class also finds the enjoyment and the pleasure of the mundane trend as written.

“Salsa: General term, referring to a variety of Latin American couple dances and their music, e.g. the guajira, charanga, and montuna from Cuba and the currulao from Columbia. It was coined for the purpose of marketing Latina American music. The dances and their music achieved international popularity during the 1980s and 1990s. Cuban salsa is characterized by fluid turns; Colombian is more static but specializes in more intricate footwork.” The Oxford Dictionary of Dance. New York: Oxford (Craine, Debra, and Judith Mackrell, 2000)

There is not much information, “Certainly many of the limitation of these texts come from the lack of an established scholarship on these topics and their limitations as oral or informal sources,” and it is written not only at Salsa and its Transnational Moves; (Sheenagh Pietrobruno, 2008) there is not much written Renta said on its Abstract, p. 139, but also mentioned by the dance instructor and scholar Fran Chesleigh that suggested” that this could be due to salsa being largely a social dance tradition, which is undervalued in comparison to theatrical/concert dances such as ballet, modern, and jazz.”  Renta also mentioned “the absence of the salsa dancing body in dance scholarship and in U. S. mainstream dance performance venues reflects the marginalization of Afro-Latino(a) dance in those arenas as well.” (Renta p. 141)   

My first question to answer is how the “natural appropriation term was coined.”   Through the jukebox of Alan Lomax many dances originations are defined,* but in America, what it happened through the Industrial Revolution and through the immigration of many races and societies into others that economically were emerging was totally different.  (Common knowledge acquired through my dance classes about Alan Lomax theories and Jukebox applications.)* The dances were developed through the interaction of the people from all over the world and many like “Ruth Saint Denis appropriated dances traditions from all over the world.” (PBS Documentary, Free Dance 1, 2012).  Through the observation of some over another and through the appropriation and innovation of others who made their living out of it.  In DANCE 350 and 657 class I learned that “The parameters of where, why, and how people dance change in response to political, economic, ideological, and technological shifts.  We have been examining dance and movement in relationship to the forces of migration and globalization.” (Doctor Wong, 2013 –DANCE 657 course description.) But it seems to be that so far no one ever realized that not only in America, people from all over the world gather together for the same economic, political and technological changes and with them they bring their ideas, knowledge, and popular traditions embedded in their hearts, behaviors and patterns, which the natives of those nationalities keep on practicing while others simultaneously are observing and “naturally appropriating some of them.”  At the same time that they are appropriating they mingle them together with their own traditions until mix popular dances are accepted among the melting pot, in this case America and are known as popular dances and they pass the test of time as they are exalted by the media who also appropriate and chose out of the accepted popular patterns as happened to Mambo, Salsa, Tango, Cumbia, etc.  In short, the patterns of movements in known dance in America were not generated by the works or jobs patterns found by Lomax (1991-8).*  They were created through the mix and mingle of many through the universal language of art, music and dance which people enjoyed and practice as part of their social interaction as described by many.   

Bottom line, Cuba used to be the main Island in which European and people from all over the world arrived first to come to America or some of the others islands in the Caribbean.  Today Mambo still has to type of the same genre that denotes the classes’ status not as they were in the past, but still in the present.  One known as the street Mambo and the Mambo On 2, which is the one in which high income people can afford the many expenses to be able to be train and knowledgeable of this type of Mambo dance.  Mark and Engels discovered that commodity gained its value through the efforts and hours worked by the workers, but in this case not only music, dance as well as any other type of intellectual creation get its value from the acceptance, and the “natural appreciation or appropriation of the people.  “Natural” because there is no profit earned out of it with the exception of the enjoyment and pride of the people who pursue it and who through perseverance qualify as professional Mambo On 2 dancer.  One important point highlighted by Hutchinson is that New York dancers and “On 2” dancers considered themselves artists, serious dancers that worked very hard to learn this complicated dance and nightclubs owners made special concession to get On 2 dancers to get into their places.   On 2 dancers are so serious that they are having club debates and many other events to keep practicing, interacting and innovating their genre style that resurrected from Mambo as introduced by Perez Prado back in 1940 in Mexico, not recently by the Nuyorican musicians and dancers who bottom line appropriated the not exactly original Mambo genre by Damaso Perez Prado who introduced it in Mexico, but which was initially created by a Cuban as a Latin Dance for Cubans.   Hutchinson wrote in page 112 confirming my ‘natural appropriation theory,’ “Many dancers make movements seen in clubs or learned from friends and relatives and adapt to them to the stage, and most try to maintain the relaxed, improvisatory feel of “street” dancing.  “On 2” used classic salsa dura, an “old school” style made in 1960s-‘70sNew York and again this author did find another support of her discoveries as Hutchinson wrote New York mambo draws from numerous other American dance traditions, from jazz, swing, and hustle to tap and ballroom dance.  .  . It was introduced in New York by Damaso Perez Prado, but before him two Cuban composers created the mambo sound in the 1930s. One of their names was Israel Lopez (Cachao).  It was Perez Prado who made the dance popular as he marketed his music as Mambo.  He was known first as “The King of Mambo” and later Tito Puentes the Puerto Rican was called no less.  The great Tito Puente is credited with the rise of mambo music-salsa’s, to the dance’s “explosion,” in his time stating one of the most prominent facts: “without a dance the music cannot be popular.” This is true, based on my search and it is written in Mambo On 2, but adding to these words we have to acknowledge that without “natural appropriation,” this process could not be complete.  Mambo dance was considered by American teachers as “extreme and without disciplined at first.” Syllabus was created killing the creativity and limiting the imagination as the natural appropriation, but for this to happen many things occurred without being acknowledged or mention until now.   (Centro Journal, Sidney Hutchinson, 2004)

Years later in New York, as the Puerto Rican majority kept on enriching the genre and developed Mambo On 2 which is a change on the steps through the beats as Eddie Torres dropping chase of Cha Cha Cha (Another dance genre)  that is based on beat changes should be named Mambo On 6 not On 2.  But as Nuyorican dancers and musicians were “creating the new Mambo On 2” many other Latin American countries who were fans of the new music genre were adding and creating local varieties in countries like Puerto Rico, Colombia, Venezuela among many other countries in Latin America where Salsa and Mambo were accepted and naturally appropriated. People do not do so for profit and just try to follow the steps, enjoy the fun, entertainment or the new popular trend that helps corporations to produce jobs, music and “appropriate” part of the dance movements or lyrics of popular genres to create profit.  I am just focusing on the development of Mambo in America and trying to define the dance identity, but this is because my class required me to focus on one or two.  Chinook Winds (1996)  in which the Native Americans will always be there because of the profitable appropriation done by wicked people or Culver Center of the Arts | Indigenous Choreographers Residency.  I feel that good part of the presentation has a lot of culture value and the dancers deserve the credit.  Nevertheless, the problem is that they are calling it what it is not and that created the issue. 


This is what based on my memories as a Latina (o) member of this ethnic group remembers seeing as I grew up back in Nicaragua, my cousin dancing with her father.  The immigrant that used to live in New York and surrounding areas and it is described by (Centro Journal – 2004. Priscilla Renta, p. 146)

“Mambo in Cuba is very specific in particular gestures and sequences.  The foot pattern switches son expectations.  .  . to a ‘touch step’ repetition that alternates from the right to the left foot.  The toe of the right foo touches the floor momentarily and then the whole right foot takes a step; this pattern is repeated on the left and continues to alternate.  Above, the hips (really  pelvis) the move forward and back with each touch, step on the feet.  The hands and arms move alternately forward and back, each arm in opposition to the feet.  The feeling and vision of Cuban mambo is bouncy, involving up and down motion of the entire body and occasional shimmering shoulders.  All sorts of catchy kicking patterns, quick small turns, and even little jumps are added. “  And to end let me finished these argument with Renta ended that page with “Mambo and son wer influenced by North American jazz and the swing band era, which paved the way for some of the dance traditions that emerged from the Palladium ballroom and nightclub during the 1950s mambo craze in New York.” (Priscilla Renta p. 146) .


America dance identity represents the people from all over the world.  Every single of us put

 there a bit of their heart- soul and no Latino(a) community is fighting their own identity with what identifies this country and the people movements from all over the world.  Dance and music is just an expression of Art in which people do not need words to enjoy communicating without a language just the pleasure and the enjoyment of the music and the dance.










(SOME HAD BEEN ALTERED TO NOT LET ME WORK) and videos references are not included in MLA because this is part of the Power Point illustration only and URL are giving their sources


Hip Hop PowWow Remix Extreme

Old Style Jingle  4:35

Ginger Rogers dances Salsa at 92 years old :25

Pow-Wow Hip-Hop-Style  01:

Pasos de Salsa y Cursos de Salsa gratis  The History of Black Dance in America


Demonstration video for the Global Jukebox (1998)

PEREZ PRADO Mambo No 5 – 1950s (from LP) (Slide)


Free to Dance (1)




  Natural Appropriation is like borrowing or sharing without a contract to return because it is part of the enjoyment.

Profitable Appropriation depends because many times have been used as anyone’s might understand as plagiarism or as it is define by Oxford Dictionary.

Definitions are defined depending on who is reading where and why?

defined by Oxford Dictionary

—  appropriation

—  Translate appropriation | into Italian

—  Definition of appropriation

—  noun 1the action of taking something for one’s own use, typically without the owner’s permission: the appropriation of parish funds

—   often derogatory the artistic practice or technique of reworking images from well-known paintings, photographs, etc., in one’s own work.

—  2a sum of money or total of assets devoted to a special purpose.

—  Origin:

—  late Middle English: from late Latin appropriation-), from appropriare‘ makeones own’ (see appropriate 

—  borrowing

—  Translate borrowing | into French | into Italian | into Spanish

—  Definition of borrowing

—  noun

—  the action of borrowing something:

—  the borrowing of clothes

—   the action of taking and using money from a bank under an agreement to pay it back later:

—  a curb on government borrowing

—  the group had total borrowings of $570 million

—   a word, idea, or method taken from another source and used in one’s own language or work:

—  a hard-bop musician with some borrowings from free jazz

—  borrowing in other Oxford dictionaries 

—  Definition of borrowing in the British & World English dictionary

—  See references for URL credits.

—’s Mobile Apps Ad-Free, Offline Content, Audio Pronunciation and More! Take Millions of Words With You Everywhere. Download now

—  ap·pro·pri·a·tion

—    [uh-proh-pree-ey-shuh n]  Show IPA

—  noun

—  1.  the act of appropriating

—  2. Anything appropriated for a special purpose, especially money.

—  3. An act of a legislature authorizing money to be paid from thetreasury for a specified use.

—  4.  The money thus authorized: a large appropriation for aid to libraries.

—  Origin: 
1325–75; Middle English  (< Middle French ) < Late Latin appropriātiōn- (stem of appropriātiō ). See appropriate-ion

—   bor·row·ing

—    [bor-oh-ing, bawr-]  Show IPA

—  noun

—  1. the act of one who borrows

—  2. The process by which something, as a word or custom, isadopted or absorbed.

—  3.

—  The result of such a process; something borrowed, as a foreignword or phrase or a custom.

—  Origin: 
1350–1400; Middle English;  see borrow -ing

KONGO ELEMENTS CUBA IS THE LARGEST ISLAND IN THE WEST INDIES; 14-15TH CENTURY WAS USED AS AN EXPLORATION BASE CONNECTING THE “New World” civilizations to the king. (CUBA: Folk, Ritual, and Social Dance – Morton Marks, 1998)

  • Son – Danzon
  • Salsa – Mambo
  • Street – Ballroom

MAMBO ON 2 OR MAMBO/SALSA. . . Any dance: Hip-Hop: Modern target.

—  “Certainly many of the limitations of these texts come from the lack of an established scholarship on these topics and their limitations as oral or informal sources.” (Aldo Garcia Guevara  Worcester State College- Salsa and its Transnational Moves; Sheenagh Pietrobruno, 2008)**

—  “Due to the dearth of scholarly work on salsa dance, my research draws from a variety of sources: my own experiences and conversations . . .performance studies.” (Centro Journal, 2004 Priscilla Renta, Salsa Dance Abstract, 139)

—  Salsa performance and dancing enjoyed several booms, and the last was in the mid-to-late 1990s. (Sheenagh Pietrobruno, 2008)**  “In spite of differences of languages, salsa dance has become a new common element of communication around the world . . . Salsa unites the world and the best proof is the World Salsa Congress.  What better way for us to communicate” (Delgado 2003-author’s translation). (Centro Journal, 2004 Sidney Hutchinson, Mambo On 2, page 113).

—  Some of the prominent San Francisco Bay Area Indian Native American Artists are: Kevin Nez (Dine), Corey Aranaydo and Chris LaMarr that I am sure can make a different with a new style striking the masses worldwide.  (Ullestad, Neal. “American Indian Rap and Reggae, Apr 2013)

Cuba is the largest island in the West Indies. 14-15th Century used as an exploration point that bridge New World with the king.

Salsa dance inherits this legacy of resistance against colonial subjugation from its Afro-Caribbean ancestors.  The marginalization of Afro-Latin(o/a) dance practices and its scholarship stems from such history.  [. . .] However, where there is resistance, there is also compliance. 

America is the melting pot
LATINO/A IDENTITY = A M E R I C A And transformation of the ‘new world identity.’

John Fiske (1990: 54) asserts: “ . . . [the] right to enjoy popular pleasures may not in itself change the system that subjugates . . . But it does preserve areas of life and meaning of experience that are opposed to normal disciplines existence.  They are oppositional pleasures, and insofar as they maintain the cultural territory of the people against the imperialism of the power-bloc, they are resistant.” (Centro Journal, 2004 Renta: 144)*  But are we really against the imperialism of the power-bloc, and they are resistant? “Natural appropriation and  European-Latino/a identity: acculturation-deculturation-transculturation. . . “the ‘new’ culture as written by many scholars, philosophers, which is the ‘ideal’ because is part of our own traditions and identity.  America is the melting pot: “The world acculturation, deculturation-transculturation . . . And transformation of the ‘new world identity.’- many of the people quoted said so= Common knowledge of (Estrellita De Jesus Benavides, 2013)

The collective roots of salsa dance come from many heterogeneous sources, the result of a complex history that extends from the colonial encounter to U. S. migration.  The salsa dancing body “narrates” this history,17 expressing a multifaceted, transcultural Latino/a identity that is in constant motion. (Centro Journal, 2004 Renta: 144)*

Fiske (1990: 54) asserted the dot in the eye, but his last sentence contradict his statement: “the right to enjoy.” * Dance as music are the accumulated international language that enclose art ideas – traditional expressions that goes beyond our human interactions and through time as also mentioned by one of the ‘Kings’: “ without a dance the music cannot be popular” (Feuerstein: “Tito Puente”). (Centro Journal, 2004 Hutchinson, Mambo On 2, page 110)

“Natural Appropriation”
do not acknowledge – unconsciously done “Natural Appropriation”
do not acknowledge – unconsciously done New York dancers have a unique dynamic, the designation of a style or movement as either “street” or “ballroom.”  The salsa/mambo world.  Mambo On 2 dancers occupy a tricky space and must continually negotiate between the two categories in order to achieve their artistic goals while still remaining “authentic.” (Centro Journal, 2004 Hutchinson, Mambo On 2, page 112)

“Natural Appropriation,”
(Estrellita De Jesus)(*) Cuban anthropologist Fernando Ortiz coined concept: transculturation  as an alternative  to the term acculturation and to actually mean assimilation (Spitta 1997: 161/Centro Journal, 2004 Renta: 144)*

CULTURAL PHENOMENA Spitta refers to “One way to undermine acculturation term. 161/144  “{ The theory of transculturation also denotes a process that,

“necessarily involves the loss or uprooting of a previous culture, which could be defined as deculturation^. . . [and] carries the idea of the consequent creation of a new cultural phenomena^. . .” (1970: 120-3)*  Spitta adds that “the ‘new’ culture is never achieved,” that “it is forever deferred and forever in the making” (1977: 161)* (*)  Such is the case for the transcultural expressions of salsa dance and music in relation to Latino/a identity.  Latino/a identity is based on an “imagined community” that is “more a political, ethnic, and cultural positioning than a genetic or racial identity . . . A political, rather than biological, matrix” (Constantino and Taylor 2000:8).16 ^Bolded and underline to emphasize by (*)

THE COMMON LANGUAGE. . .  SINCE THE UMBRELLA TERM Latino/a encompasses so many different cultures from Latin America, the Caribbean, and the U. S. , neither Latino/a identity nor salsa dance can be reduced to fixed, homogeneous characteristics.  Similarly, the collective roots of salsa dance come from many heterogeneous sources, the result of a complex history that extends from the colonial encounter to U. S.  Migration.  The salsa dancing body “narrates” this history, 17 expressing a multifaceted, transcultural Latino/a identity that is in constant motion. (Centro Journal, 2004 Renta: 144)*

Latino/a identity: “imagined community”}* from all over the world.


—  For political engagement is one of best tools for governments and the people.

—  Promote culture advances.

—  Preserve traditions and history of different ethnics and background, but it is important to acknowledge their contributions.


—  Filipinos NTV appropriation is holding jobs and enjoyment that harm corporations.

—  Creates frictions between the culture popular images and the one created to build new ones.

—  To be able to craft a new enlighten we should compromise.

—  Get the best Native Indian Americans and Hip-Hop; do not misrepresent them!


One response to “They are doing that purposely. Government is not allowing Salsa to develop or Hip-Hop to control the media and the money just on certain people as we not all pay the taxes and perhaps based on what I discovered the poor pay the most.

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