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Another “F” forced at College of San Mateo with an open book test!

on December 13, 2012

THE HISPANIC COMMUNITY IS NOT A THREATEN TO THIS COUNTRY

INTRODUCTION

Our first assignments in LTNS 660 was to read The Huntington Article and the Zepeda response.  Huntington in the Foreign Policy article stereotypes Mexicans, and the “suggested by him,” growing Hispanic Community in many negative ways.  First of all, Huntington described the Hispanic Community as the divider of the native pop culture of the United States and among other a group of people who are hot, prompt to reproduce and who is not assimilating and integrating into this society.  Instead, they are maintaining the Spanish language around their growing ethnic group and not the English language.  Huntington’s word transpare that the Hispanic community is not likely to wish to learn the language, and is having their own religious believes and orientation among many other things and they are a threat. ._He just played a trick known as witchcraft and suggested through his article the proliferation of this community and he gave them a negative narrative.  He set up this community as many others had been set up in the past, to be rejected, to be seen as the ones abusing the system and the ones who are coming just to get the health,  or education benefits of the people in this country.  (2004) 

Profesor S. P. Huntington mentioned “The persistent inflow of Hispanic immigrants threatens to divide the United States into two peoples, two cultures, and two languages.  Unlike past immigrant groups, Mexicans and other Latinos have not assimilated into mainstream U. S. culture, forming instead their own political and linguistic enclaves – from Los Angeles to Miami- and rejecting the Anglo-Protestant values that built the American dream.  The United States ignores this challenge at its peril.” (2004, p. 30)  

This is not the first time the leaders and others supporting them in this country set a race under the same pattern of rejection and persecution as done before to Blacks, Asians, gays, and/or  women, . . .  Through ideological stereotypes that creates conditions for hatred against this negative image or group of people that enable them to divert the attention away from the real problems and creates conditions for further explotation of the group that they are targeting as they opened racial resentments against this group.  It had happen in the past and still happening against other groups like Black people or as happened in 1930 with many other people in the Hawaiian island like the Asians, and even the “Hawaiian children for speaking their native tongue.2” (Imada, 2004, p. 118).  He did not figure out that many times the Hispanic Community get discourage from learning the English Language as the sources are limited.  Many times they get discouraged, forced to feel discriminated (2006) and are not been represented properly.

The goal behind is a political opportunism of the people who are trying to gain the attention as they are using the target community to step up on them as happened with Pete Wilson and Proposition 187, who never as many others considered what by Hidalgo Contract the United States owed – education for the Mexicans’ whose territory was absorbed by this country in the 1800s.  Prop. 187 brought only hatred and divider the melting community pot of this country “African Americans and Asians voted in support of Prop 187 at a rate of nearly 50%.  This difference in voter opinion allowed the imminent issue to be used as a ‘divide and conquer’ tactic between blacks and Latinos.” (Carrillo notes-iLearn, 2012)

The Hispanic community represent the 16 percent of the population in the United States, only ten percent voted in 2012. Government through Huntington suggested the rapid growing of this ethnic group, but is limiting the structure needed for them to grow intellectually, and politically with the sole intention to keep exploiting and abusing them.  Higher financial cost for the citizenship application, Bilingual programs for children cancelled and limited sources for adults and Affirmative Action changes.  Huntington, they are been forced to not assimilate!

The leaders of this ethnic group need to take steps to claim those structures, like adult schools to learn the English for the growth of this ethnic group.  Many are the groups who can lead and help them like churches and group organizations that will benefit from getting their support and having their voice to say around this country political decisions.  It is just a matter to choose and give their vote to the representatives who represent their best interest not the ones who are discriminating and loading on them a negative narrative to abuse and exploit them.

The public negative narrative imposed by Huntington (2004) is forcing illegal seggregation, discrimination, racism and is not allowing the Hispanic Community to assimilate the U. S. pop culture, the English language as education.

HUNTINGTON, ZEPEDA, CHAVEZ  INPUTS  

            Huntington foreign policy stereotyping the Hispanic Community (2004) forced them to struggle, stand and request changes in 2006 as many took advantage of the negative narrative that he imposed on them.  He made them someone who was taking advantages over the health, the education system or this country when the data show the opposite as Chris Zepeda tried in his response to give a different approach

“Huntington, a professor of government at Harvard . . . now the terror alert (elevated) has been switched to the brown peril (Latinos). . . Huntington claims that Mexicans are essentially invading, exploiting and creating poverty in the US, . . .But they are not preparing a reconquista of the territories lost in 1848.” . . . “He should know that most European populations speak many languages, and that it is isolation that forces cultures to perish.  Hispanics enrich American culture, and to reduce their presence would also hurt America’s economy.” (Zepeda Response, 2004, p. 1, 2 & 3)

One thing that comes to memory growing up was the way in which quite a number of Latin American people especially Mexicans supported the United States especially throughout WWI.  Their pride in this country put them in the center of battlefields defending the symbols of this country and helped The United States to become the political and economical power that represent in this world.  According to Huntington“The cultural division between Hispanics and Anglos could replace the racial division between blacks and whites as the most serious cleavage in U. S. society.” (p. 32)  This article gave to the Hispanic community one of the most negative narrative that as mentioned by Leo R. Chavez (2008, p.115) affected many as Jesica Santillan who die hearing many saying that she did not deserve the organ transplanted to try to save her life, but they never realized that the organ giving to her was part of the five percent limit to give back from the higher percentage donated by this ethnic group who also, pay through taxes billions which many times they never claim for various reason and which benefit the citizens of this country.

 “Medical providers are also disciplined in that they are compelled to impose limitations on services, such as the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) policy that no more than 5 percent of organs can go to “foreigners,” which includes undocumented immigrants.  These limitations are applied even though evidence suggests that immigrants may provide more organs than they receive. “As a percentage, every year, U. S. citizens received 96.2 percent of transplants in the country, but only 94.8 percent of organ donos were citizens.  . .  . About 78 percent of Latinos had done so during the first six months of 2002, whereas only 62 percent of other groups had.77(p. 130) and as written undocumented immigrants are now said to provide a subsidy of as much as $7 billion a year to the U. S. Social Security system and $1.5 billion in Medicare taxes. 81 (Chavez 2008, p. 131) 

Back in 1848 when U.S. signed the Hidalgo’s  Contract gave right to education to the Mexicans.  Traditionally as recorded (Census) they had just come and go, working the hardest jobs and many times receiving as pay not even the minimum wages and had never claim anything until Huntington, Pete Wilson (Prop 187). . . pushed the Hispanic Community to ask for some rights and many of the ones helping them, lost their jobs.  To empower this community learn from the leader of smaller ethnic groups who are having bigger political impact as they are  representing their people.  Their unclaimed billions gives a higher living standard to the citizens of this country.  Mexicans were and still slow to try to get citizenship (Pew Hisp. Data 2012)

It is government who is denying and bringing down the education in this country just because the Mexicans grew in numbers as suggested by Huntington (2004).  Our children go through the by law years of education not learning to read and a good example is my own baby who is in his third grade  and is not being teach to do so.  Huntington said: “They are not assimilating, they just speak Spanish.” When they are denying, when they are changing the education for the worse and government still segregating even inside the classroom to some of the students and they are taken them “legally” just to make sure they will not learn and will not be successful,.” Adult education is limited, bilingual programs cancelled, and Affirmative Action changes are taking place and Propositions like the 187 are push.  (Pew Hispanic G Principle).    

PERKINS’ NEW PHASE OF STEREOTYPES APPLIED TO THE HISPANICS

  Perkins ideological stereotypes analysis explains the negative  narrative imposed and how it works the mind not only of the Hispanic community now or Asians, Blacks, gays, lesbians, women. . .  The new faces of the old stereotypes or should we call them the new phase of stereotypes?  One thing that we do have to keep in mind is that the media is the influential, and puts the dot on the eyes.  It is who talks and put on the table the topic, the characteristic that define the individual or the group the author of “Rethinking Stereotypes.  “One of the ways in which the mass media operate to support the ruling ideology is in this re-defining process and in the circulation of new definitions or a range of new definitions.” “It is not to imply a conspiracy theory, and of course she is not suggesting that this is calculated.”  According to her “The media respond to what they think the audience want, which includes ‘new’ or topical series as well as old favourites.” (T. E. Perkins, p. 148-9)  

One group of people offered the new definitions and interpretation and the other which can be influence or may be influential because through the process one group flip the stereotypes and again the process starts to keep as Karl Marx said one group as a class and another group as the ideological controlling group through narrative or text that stereotype members of society to exploit, margin and abuse them.  Perkins mentioned “some of the many types of programme that through the years had been re-defining, re-negotiating? ‘Through the share cultural meanings’”

What is important to realize is that stereotypes are evaluative concepts done by individuals who are observing, who are socializing who are constantly evaluating and including one’s self and as Perkins said “-to be socialize is to be self-oppressed. (Effectiveness of the ideology relies on this as does its ‘legitimacy’)” (156) Perkins ends her article “with the hope of achieving in part a theoretical perspective on stereotypes which allows us to investigate them as ideological phenomena.” Perkins analysis found basis in Fraga et all, and a positive change is the result of the abuses and the negative narrative imposed by Huntington.  A greater number is getting their citizenship to vote and they are working to get together and are participating more actively. (p. 2)

“We might see the marches as the culmination of the political process begun in 1994 with the Latino reaction to California Proposition 187, which prohibited providing most state services to those suspected of being undocumented immigrants Fraga and Ramirez 2003; Pantoja, Ramirez, and Segura 2001).” “Latinos are feeling more discriminated against, politically energized and unified following the immigration policy debate and the pro-immigration march this spring. . . More than half (54%) of Latinos surveyed believe the debate has increased discrimination.  Almost two-thirds (63%) think the pro-immigrant marches this year signal the beginning of a new and lasting social movement. . .  And in marked contrast to prior surveys, a majority (58%) now believes Hispanics are working together to achieve common goals.”  Reading on the same article (p. 6) “Participants in many of the pro-immigration rallies that took place across the country in the spring chanted.  “Today we march, tomorrow we vote.”  Three-quarters (75%) of Latinos surveyed agreed that as a result of the debate over immigration policy in Washington, many more Hispanics will vote in the November elections.” But if we further analyze the information posted on that survey release we will find on (p. 16) “That an average of 70% of the people surveyed from June 2002 till 2006 felt that some people said that undocumented or illegal immigrants help the economy by providing low-cost labor.” And on (p. 20) you will find that about 50% of the people were thinking that Congress should allowed them to become legal and they were happy to just come to work legally on a temporary basis.

 

Since 2006 the eyes of the Hispanic Community had been opened and did have one percent increase in 2012 compared to the prior elections; many are realizing the political potential that this ethnic group has and they are become citizens at a higher rate not only through birth.  Many political groups as well as other ethnic or social groups are realizing the big potential votes and voice that they will have on the Hispanic Community for near future elections.  In 2012, 11.2 million are adults eligible to vote that chose not to. 5.4 are potential legal adults just needing their citizenship to have right to vote which is the main reason to do so and 17.6 million are under age 18 and per year about millions will turn eligible. “But perhaps a more illuminating way to analyze the distinctive characteristics of the Hispanic electorate-current and future-is to parse the more than 40 million Hispanics in the U. S. who did not vote or were not eligible to vote in 2012.” And they are likely to double in size within a generation. (Pew Hisp. Center, 2012)

For this community it had been plenty to have a job, make some money to send back to native country to improve the standard of living of their families where this country is trying to expand and this have the potential to help the economy of this world.  Yes they walked on the marches, but because this country had become so greedy and has no respect for absolutely anyone and not to say any acknowledgment for the people who are doing the hardest jobs and are the ones who are supporting to certain extent their growing pockets and power. 

 “This pronouncement had been made a full ten months earlier in a New York Times article by William Frey . . .: “The 300 millionth [baby] will be a Mexican Latino in Los Angeles County, with parents who speak Spanish at home and with siblings who are bilingual.”2 . . . There, Jose ranked fourth in 2004 among the most popular baby names for boys after Daniel, Anthony and Andrew.”3 (Chavez, p. 70) to irrigate the Huntington’s negative narrative imposed on them.

Yes, they have been divided based on the countries from which they arrived, the cohort, the history behind their immigration status or reasons that forced them to come into this country, but now they have the vote right as common goal to achieve their dreams. “Lisa Lowe, an Asian American Studies scholar that critiqued the campaign to pass Prop 187 as being based on racial stereotypes that are carefully constructed images designed to make lies more attractive than truth. (p. 53)” and (LTNS 660 Forum). In short, government is not acknowledging the support and in the same forum and expanded saying “In blaming immigrants workers for coming to the US to collect welfare benefits.  Lowe says “that the political event of Prop 187 was partly a prelude to cutting welfare and privatizing what are now public benefits such as education and health services.” We need leaders that will keep on guiding not only the Hispanic Community to stop the use and abuse of our government system by criminals.

            In 2012 Election the Hispanic community made a jumped voting 10 vs. 9 percent than the prior to 2012 Election and made a 10 percent of the electorate vote.  Re-emphasizing that as a country we need to re-evaluate our doings.  The Mexican representation in better pay jobs are very low compared to other races even though they are reaching almost the 17 percent of the population in this country and again the question is “Are the Mexicans really demanding or trying to be the threat of this country or some people are stereotyping them irresponsible just to gain votes or to take attention away from the real issues.

The intention is to bring up the issue before these issues gained a bigger magnitude as happened in 2006.  Evaluate the data that for years had been showing the economic wealth that the Hispanic community had help this country to earn and do not make them feel discriminated or not welcome.  The Hispanic community is growing in number as suggested and forced even through legislation which do not allow under age to abort without informing parents as everyone else.  They need to grow intellectually to keep on helping this country to grow economically.  Find out how the communities and cities growth goes parallel to their increase number as members of those communities.  Despite their origin or cohort, the Hispanic Community should see themselves as one group and should be seeking the intellectual growth of the community.  Teach yourself if there are no schools providing education.  Educate yourself and learn the English language, 5-10 words as you go on the buses. Live and be successful in this country, participate politically, socially not only spending in Halloween; keep cities and homes clean.

“According to Lopez and Taylor through the Pew Hispanic Center the Latino voter in the 2012 Election voted for democratic representative,” Obama 71%; for the Republican Romney 27%” and they also made a comparison of the same pattern from the 1980 till this election which shows the higher percentage or the Hispanic community involvement which is having an increase due to the pressure and the discrimination. The highest numbers recorded since 1996 according to their data shown below as well as their comments. “Obama’s national vote share among Hispanic voters is the highest seen by a Democratic candidate since 1996, when President Bill Clinton won 72% of the Hispanic vote. “ (Pew Hisp. Ctr. 2012)

            Learn how to read in between the lines because all the analysis made by institution are used against the group that is being stereotype negatively with the sole purpose to get benefit for the group who is promoting the proposition like the SB 1070 or the 187 or the 209 . . .   Majority of the Hispanic community members even the one who had come legally to work into this country as the U. S. had been having the need like “The Braseros -war time,” held the Mexicans paid taxes (Wells Fargo) they never collected them back and still now good number of them work and paid for taxes that will never give any returns or Social Security benefits.  Add all the millions of dollars paid every single year through SS or through the payments given through taxes, they will find that this community is the one subsidizing the prices for the people who live legally in this country.

Yes, the number is showing a new pattern emerged since 2006, but isn’t the government subsidizing the maquiladoras at the border?  Isn’t it attracting the “illegal immigrants deeper into this country?”  What it is the real goal? Why do they like to blame the poor? Jim Huber draws another cartoon, but this time not blaming the Mexicans or saying “They are exhausting the systems, dividing or not assimilating.”  Put the hat on the head of the U. S. people who is blaming the ones who are just being attracted. The Hispanic community had been giving to this country economy.  Make the characters to laugh and aloud say why they are forcing the Hispanic Community to come and growth (2004).  What is going on?  Why are they forcing them? 

 Education, the most important issues or topic for any or the Hispanic communities is going down to the trash as their number are increasing and as government is allowing and creating the conditions to make them come. (Learning resumes LTNS 660) Prop 209; government cancelled bilingual programs. We need actions no words decorating your organizations attracting the support of the people without “really” representing them.

“Our immigration policies must actively promote the civic integration of newcomers.  Many newcomers face significant barriers when they attempt to acquire the skills needed to participate in our nation’s civic life.  Immigrants who pursue English language learning (ELL) and civics instruction often face waiting lists or crowded classrooms.  Comprehensive immigration reform provides a critical opportunity to promote ELL and civics instruction and make more resources available for adult education services.  In addition, our immigration policies must ensure that the naturalization process is fair and accessible for newcomers.  We oppose any efforts that would create unfair obstacles for naturalization applicants, including high application fees or other costs that put U. S. citizenship beyond the reach of middle, and low-income legal permanent residents.  We also oppose measures that would jeopardize the due process rights of applicants or make unfair changes in the English and civics proficiency requirement for U. S. citizenship.” (NALEO, Princ. Imm. Reform pdf).

This author also gives testimony that is not so.  Immigration certainly had been   

dividing the Hispanic families in ways that are not up to the 2000 millennium laws and many are the families which are broken and separate as many are the ones who struggle to have their citizenship granted as they had been forced to pay a very high increased to do so to stop them  as done in the 1800s.  Few people mention as in Chapter 18, The Schooling of Latino Children written by Moll and Ruiz (p. 364) and which talk about the Hidalgo Contract part that warranty education to the Mexicans.  Instead for years segregated, instead and for many years as written below forced into subtractive schooling which is forcing them to have the highest rate of dropping even before their high school graduations and coughing almost shocking “Prop. 187.”

Similarly, Mexican Americans (or Chicanos) also exhibit low achievement and mobility (Garcia 1995).  Their history in North America predates that of any other Latino group, a fact that is not lost on many within the community (Gutierrez 1995).  Upon the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848, Mexican became Mexican Americans with the stroke of a pen.  The treaty gave this country nearly half of Mexico’s territory, what are now the states (or part thereof) of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and California.  As Anglo Americans occupied the new territories, motivated by the mining for gold in California and the rapid spread of railroad lines and commerce, the ideology of white supremacy followed, under the philosophical guise of “manifest destiny,” providing justification for the displacement not only of lands and property but also of language and culture (Velez-Ibanez, 1997, p. 362) . . . This dual strategy of exclusion and condemnation, divesting Latino students of their primary resources-their language and culture-is what Valenzuela (1999) has called “subtractive schooling.”  This form of schooling has become a major feature of the education of poor and working-class Latino students all over the country.  It results in disdain for what one knows and what one is, influences children’s attitudes toward knowledge, and undermines their personal competence.  That is, subtractive schooling creates a social distance between the students and the world of school knowledge and expertise, whereas, in contrast, one is unskilled and incompetent-that one’s language and knowledge are inadequate because they are not privilege.” (p. 364 and 65)

NCLR AND THE HOUSING DISCRIMINATION . . . AGAINST THE HISPANICS

Their land was not only taken in the past, have been happening in the last decade as      

 Professor Carrillo’s lectures “Housing discrimination that this community had been facing as well as written on the Fair Housing Act” A Latino Perspective (Yzaguirre, Arce, Kamsaki, 1999) in their conclusion “Social science research has demonstrated conclusively that Latinos experience substantial housing discrimination.  In recent years, Federal agencies and private fair housing groups have begun to carry out increased enforcement efforts to protect the civil rights of Hispanics under the Fair Housing Act.  Despite the progress outlined in this article, the Act has not lived up to its promise.” Read Unlawful Detainer dismissed three times at California, No. 196599  and no less at San Francisco Federal court MHP  and subsequent cases on same matter. A personal testimony not only of the tricks played not only at the school system, but in many others that are being publicly denounced for at least the last seven years in which not only the Hispanic community was discriminated, robbed through the Realtor Crisis that had taken the saving of the Americans and their dream house.  Refer to the National Council of La Raza (NCLR) title to say again the Hispanic community was discriminated and were one of the hardest supporters of the New Orleans area as they needed someone to work hard there. “In the eye of the storm: How the government and private response to Hurricane Katrina failed Latinos.” (Brenda Muniz, Consultant of NCLR, 2006, p. 1)

 “The White House” making a statement and changes in regards racisms for the first time in history who was helped by this community and who in his first round did not give them any immigration law that would help to change the legal status quo of millions of the Hispanic people as well as many other races.  The 2012 Pew Hispanic Election data show that Mexicans still slow in changing citizenship not because they do not care or support this country, but because they believe on the leaders of this country who are not giving them the tools to learn the language that will help them to assimilate other important things of the culture of this country instead they are importing more immigrants who will come to compete with the better pay jobs because the growing faster Hispanic Community is not able to assimilate them as they are been forced and as the Hispanic Community need to have more representation.

Conclusion

In conclusion, very few are giving back to the Hispanic community and to this country equally.  Some of them are just helping to the people in power to set up this ethnic group to be exploited.  Some helped them in 2006, but the “leaders” in this country retaliated against them. Ten percent of the radio, television people who helped the Hispanic community not to threaten this country, but to ask for basic needs that this group had been denied throughout the years.  For years, the Mexicans who represent the majority of the Hispanic community were killed and abused by the Rangers, Minutemen, SB 1070, Pete Wilson, Huntington . . . but worse the main reason this author find for them not to be as successful as Asian people for example is because they are being divided and their Hispanic leaders are not defending them through the stroke of their pens, or bringing to the public attention the unjust abuses that they are suffering just to take attention from the real issues as the leaders gained support without really doing anything and just dividing as keeping the power.    Many were the ones put in government seats by the Hispanic community after the first election followed the 2006 marches, but they are not saying or doing absolutely anything to change the negative narrative put by Huntington on this community, this is what needs to be change. 

Government is allowing the unjust killing of the Hispanic community jobs through Unions in and is allowing the unjust payments of the borders through the maquiladoras where women and children are being exploited.  They are subsidizing corporations not the forced to die business of individuals.  The Hispanics are been brought to remote places and all over in the United States with the sole intention to abuse and set them up as done to the Black community in the slavery time.  Perhaps Zepeda’s paper is not one of the best elaborated documents written to stop the negative narrative in the Hispanic community, but this author earned my respect and I hope that God will bless him for his brave answer.  Refer as written by Zepeda to the economic support of this community to this country and its people.

Chavez, Fraga et all, Garcia and many others like NALEO, LA RAZA, Pew Hispanic Center . . . needs to put the dot exactly where is needed without going around.  Do not take me wrong, they are doing a good job, but they perhaps are afraid of the retaliations.  The Hispanic community big in numbers is not having voice yet as other tiny ethnic groups are doing so and you will not be alone defending and supporting them.   Re-take the leadership; use the legacy that Cesar Chavez left for us.  Do not give credit to who not deserve it.  The future of the United States leadership in this world is in danger and for the sake not only of the Hispanic community in the United States; I am begging publicly to the pot melted community to support and “Give to Cesar what Cesar deserve.”

Let give to the children what they need to assimilate into the United States pop culture not taking from them their own roots, languages or customs, but adding not only on them, but among “U. S.” to keep enhancing as done for years through the share of many cultures and as Zepeda mentioned “Fuentes argues: “He should know that most European populations speak many languages, and that it is isolation that forces cultures to perish.  Hispanics enrich American culture, and to reduce their presence would also hurt America’s economy.” (Zepeda Response, 2004, p. 3), but on the same token let tell to the Mexicans –the Hispanic community that this is The United States and if you want to be here you need the English language, the Spanish at home and in regards to the religion our First Amendment says it all because as God, this country gave us choices through the Constitution. 

This author wants to thank to every single of the people data used throughout this final paper and begging you to forgive me if throughout my poor English skill and other issues.  If I am not giving you the appropriate credits as I am trying hard to do so.  This poor Hispanic human is just trying hard to learn, to give you back as much generosity as this country and people have been giving to me.

 

References

Carrillo, T. (n.d.). Latina/o Politics LTNS 660 Reader. In LTNS 660 Reader – Fall 2012. (Original work published 2012)

Chavez, L. R. (2008). The Latino Threat. In L. R. Chavez (Author), The Latino threat: Constructing immigrants, citizens, and the nation (pp. 1-247). Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. (Original work published 2008)

Empowering Latinos from Citizenship to public services. (2011, June 23). NALEO Empowering Latinos from Citizenship to public services, 1-6. Retrieved from NALEO Educational Fund database.

Fraga, L. R., Garcia, J. A., Hero, R. E., Jones-Correa, M., Martinez-Ebers, V., & Segura, G. M. (2010). In L. R. Fraga (Author), Latino lives in America: Making it home. Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press. (Excerpted from Latino Lives in America Making it Home)

Garcia, J. A. (2011). Latino Politics in America 2nd Edition. In J. A. Garci?a (Author), Latino politics in America: Community, culture, and interests (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publisher. (Original work published 2012)

Glick Schiller, N. (n.d.). Transmigrants and Nation-States Something Old and something New in the U. S. Immigrant Experience. Retrieved from Transmigrants and Nation-States Something Old and something New in the U. S. Immigrant Experience database.

Gonzalez-Barrera, A., Lopez, M. H., Passel, J., & Taylor, P. (2012, November 14). An Awakened Giant: The Hispanic Electorate is Likely to Double by 2030. Retrieved from An Awakened Giant: The Hispanic Electorate is Likely to Double by 2030 database.

Hispanics and the 2004 Election: Population, Electorate and Voters. (2005, June 27). Retrieved from Pew Hispanic Center Report database.

Huntington, S. P. (n.d.). The Hispanic Challenge. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from Washington Post.Newsweek.Interactive, LLC website: https://ilearn.sfsu.edu/file.php/2631/Huntington2004.pdf

Imada, A. L. (2004, March). Hawaiians on Tour: Hula Circuits through the American Empire [Lecture notes]. Retrieved November 14, 2012, from iLearn sfsu.edu website: https://ilearn.sfsu.edu/file.php/1356/Readings/Imada._Hawaiians_on_Tour.pdf

Lipsitz, G. (1998). The Possessive Investment in Whiteness. Retrieved from The Possessive Investment in Whiteness from Identity Politics database.

Motel, S. (2012, February 21). Statistical Portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2010. Retrieved from Statistical Portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2010 database.

See graphic numbers of native born Hispanics in America

Muniz, B. (2006). In the eye of the storm: How the Government and private response to Hurricane Katrina failed Latinos. Retrieved from NCLR In the eye of the storm: How the Government and private response to Hurricane Katrina failed Latinos database.

NALEO. (2004). 2004 PRIMARY ELECTION PROFILES. NALEO Educational Fund, 1-4. Retrieved from 2004 PRIMARY ELECTION PROFILES database.

PPIC Public Policy Institute of California. (n.d.). California Population PPIC. In PPIC (pp. 1-4). Retrieved from https://ilearn.sfsu.edu/file.php/2631/R_111HJR.pdf

Taylor, P., & Lopez, M. H. (2012, November 7). Latinos Voters in the 2012 election. Retrieved from Pew Hispanic http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/11/07/latino-voters-in-the-2012-election/ database.

Voting Rights and Texas. (2011, December 3). Retrieved from The New York Times database.

Sunday Review Editorial pages

Wing, B. (2000, December 7). The Structure of White Power and the Color of Election 2000. Retrieved from https://ilearn.sfsu.edu/mod/resource/view.php?id=16915

Zepeda, C. (2004, June 23). Article on Samuel Huntington. Retrieved from Chris Zepeda <jczepeda@YAHOO.com> database.

 

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